What Kinds of Springs are There?
There are many kinds of springs. There are various classification methods, and nothing is decisive. In the following, we will mainly explain the types by type and material type, and will touch on other classifications.Classification according to the way the load is applied
Tension/tension spring: The spring is designed to stretch the load, so the spring stretches when the load is applied.
Compression spring: Designed to operate under compressive load, so the spring becomes shorter when a load is applied.
Torsion spring: different from the above type, where the load is an axial force, the load applied to the torsion spring is torque or torsion, and the end of the spring rotates through the angle when the load is applied.
Constant force spring: The supporting load remains constant throughout the deflection cycle.
Variable spring: The resistance of the coil to the load changes during compression.
Variable stiffness springs: The resistance of the coil to the load can be changed dynamically, for example through a control system. Certain types of these springs also change their length, thereby also providing actuation capabilities.
Classification according to their shape
Flat spring: This type is made of flat spring steel.
Machined spring: This type of spring is manufactured by machining bar stock and lathe milling operations instead of winding operations. Since it is machined, the spring can include features other than elastic elements. Machined springs can be manufactured under typical compression/extension, torsion and other loads.
Snake spring: a thick wire with a rough saw-often used in modern upholstery/furniture.
The most common spring types
Cantilever spring: a spring that is fixed only at one end.
Coil springs or'helical springs: springs (made by winding a cylinder) have two types:
"Tension" or "tension spring": Designed to become longer under load. Their rotation (ring) usually touches in the unloaded position, and they have hooks, eyes or some other connection at each end.
"Compression spring": Designed to be shorter when loaded. Their turns (rings) have no contact in the unloading position, and they do not need connection points.
"Hollow tube spring": It can be a tension spring or a compression spring. The hollow tube is filled with oil and a device that changes the hydrostatic pressure in the tube, such as a membrane or a micro piston, which hardens or relaxes the spring, such as a diaphragm or a micro piston, to make the spring hard or loose, such as a diaphragm or a micro piston. The spring hardens or relaxes, or the cross-sectional shape of the pipe is selected so that it will change its area when the pipe is torsionally deformed-the change in cross-sectional area is converted into a change in the internal volume of the pipe and the oil flow into and out of the spring is controlled by a valve To control the stiffness. There are many other designs of hollow tube springs, which can change the stiffness of any desired frequency, change the stiffness by multiples or move like a linear actuator in addition to the spring mass.
Conical spring: Conical compression coil spring so that the coils will not squeeze each other during compression, thus allowing a longer stroke.
A thin spring or balance spring is a delicate coil spring used in watches. The current meter and power supply must be carried to a part of the rotating device (such as the steering wheel) without hindering the rotation.
Leaf springs: flat springs used for vehicle suspension systems, electrical switches and bows and arrows.
V-shaped spring: used in antique firearms mechanism. It is also a door lock spring, used for antique door latch mechanisms.
Other types include
Disc gasket or disc spring: a disc spring, usually used to apply tension to bolts.
Gas spring: compressed gas volume
Ideal Spring: The conceptual spring used in physics, it has no weight, mass or damping loss. The force exerted by the spring is proportional to the distance the spring extends or compresses from its relaxed position.
Clockwork spring: spiral ribbon spring, used as power storage in the clockwork mechanism: watches, clocks, music boxes, clockwork toys and mechanical flashlights
Constant pressure spring: a thin metal strip with a slightly concave cross section. When wound, it adopts a flat cross-section, but when unfolded, it returns to its original curve, thereby generating a constant force during the entire displacement and "offsetting" any tendency to rewind. The most common application is tape measure. 
Progressive helical spring: A helical spring with a variable rate, usually achieved by having unequal pitches, so that when the spring is compressed, one or more coils rest on its adjacent position.
Rubber Band: A stretch spring that stores energy by stretching the material.
Spring washers: used to apply constant tension along the axis of the fastener.
Torsion spring: Any spring design twists rather than compresses or extends. Used for torsion bar vehicle suspension system.
Wave spring: Any of many wave springs, washers and expanders, including linear springs-all of these are usually made of flat wires or discs, according to industry terms, usually by molding, "corrugated" into a regular pattern of waves Causes curved lobes. There are also round wire wave springs.
Article source: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BC%B9%E7%B0%A7